Islamic Economics - Law Resources on Islamic Economics

IslamicEconomics-Law Resources on Islamic Economics-There are various methods of making law  in Islam, which is roughly divided up as agreed by all scholars and who is still a difference of opinion, particularly where this can be studied in disciplines ushl fiqh. In this book are described only law-making methods that have been agreed upon by all scholars, consists of the Quran, Hadith & Sunnah, consensus, and qiyas.
  1.  Al-Quran - Sources of Islamic law is eternal and authentic holy book the Qur'an. The Qur'an is the true message of God delivered through the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad to guide humanity. This mandate is universal, timeless and fundamental. Understanding the Qur'an is the revelation of God as revealed to Prophet Muhammad (both the content and editorial staff) through the intercession of the Archangel Gabriel. However, there was misunderstanding among some of the educated Muslims and non Muslims about the true meaning of the Holy Koran. Their assumption that the Qur'an was created by the Prophet Muhammad and not the word of Allah SWT. Their assumption was wrong, because the Qur'an is the word of God is communicated to the Prophet Muhammad through the angel Gabriel. Moreover, it is impossible that the Prophet Muhammad could not read and write (Ummi able to write the Qur'an that beautiful language and full of meaning. Allah ordered us to make the Qur'an is to guide our lives in order not to stray from the straight path. Guidelines for life is not just only in ritual worship alone, but is also practiced in everyday life. With practice the science of God, God will pour out blessings to the people. And what a lucky people who run the Islamic sharia in earnest in any economic activity will get the happiness of the world and the hereafter. So that in every economic law making withdrawals and must seek a referral beforehand in the Qur'an if it is prohibited by sharia or not. If not found in the Qur'an concerning the economic laws we want to pull the conclusions, then we can look for it in other sources of Islamic law that is in the Hadith and Sunnah. The function and role of the Qur'an which is the revelation of God is a miracle for the Messenger of Allah; way of life for every Muslim; as a proofreader and complement to the books before God, and eternal and universal value that can be applied by all people humans.
  2. Hadith and Sunnah-In the context of Islamic jurisprudence, sunna which literally means "way, customs, habits of life" refers to the behavior of the Prophet Muhammad as a model. Sunnah is largely based on normative practice in contemporary society. Sunnah has a tradition of understanding the meaning of life on each of the next generation. A Sunnah to be distinguished from the hadith which is usually a short story, which principally contains information about what was said, done, approved, and are not approved by the Prophet Muhammad, or information about his friends. Because it is a hadith is something that is theoretical, while the Sunnah is the real news. But we do not have too much debate between the difference in the hadith and sunnah, because in substance they are identical. Hadith and Sunnah as guidance supplementary comes after the Holy Qur'an that guide Muslims living in any of his behavior. And a source of law from any decision-making in Islamic economics. Hadith can be complementary and explanatory of the economic law that is still a general nature and is not contained in the Qur'an. Relationship with Al-Qur'an Sunnah, namely: (1) parrots interpretation, where the Sunnah explains the verses are very common, and musytarak mujmal, (2) bayan taqriri, ie sunnah serves to strengthen and reinforce the statements in the verses of Al- Qur'an, (3) budgie taudih, Sunnah explains the purpose and objectives sesesuatu verses in the Qur'an. Based on the quality of the chain of transmission and has a degree of honor hadith saheeh, hasan and da'eef. And based on the number of hadith narrators have a level of mutawatir and Munday
  3. Ijma-Consensus that a third source of law is a good consensus from the public and from scholars of religion. The conceptual difference between Sunnah and the consensus lies in the fact that the sunnah in principle limited to the teachings of the Prophet and expanded on a friend because they are the source for its delivery. While consensus is a new legal principle arising as a result of the reasoning for any changes that occur in society, including in the economic field. Consensus is the most potent reason in solving the  complex beliefs and practices of Muslims. This consensus has validity and functional high power after the Holy Qur'an and the Hadith and Sunnah. Because it is a result of collective consensus of the scholars who are experts in their fields, so that consensus can only be recognized as a law if it had been agreed upon by the scholars who are experts. However, there are some parties who are often dubious results ijma scholars, and more likely to trust the law by its own decision-making even though such laws are often wrong. This is what happens a lot, where the development of many thoughts that arise that are contrary to Islamic principles.
  4. Ijtihad and Qiyas-Technically, ijtihad means continue to make every effort to decide more or less likely an issue of the Shari'a. The effect is that the legal opinion rendered may be true, although it may be wrong. So ijtihad trust most in the process of interpretation and reinterpretation, and partly on the reasoning analogical deduction. In the early centuries of Islam, ra'y (personal opinion) is the principal tool of ijtihad. But when the general principles of law established in a systematic way, it was later replaced by qiyas. There is evidence to suggest that most of the jurists and theologians consider lawful qiyas aspekl not only intellectually, but also in aspects of Shari'a. Qiyas role is extending to issues of law clause is not included in the terms, the reason for the "effective" is normal for those two things and can not be understood from the statement (about the original). According to legal experts, the expansion of the law by analogy does not show new legal provisions, but only to find legal help.
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